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"What are the protection relays in power transformers and how do these relays work?"
When a fault occurs in a transformer, the resulting damage is usually proportional to the fault occurring time period. Therefore, the transformer needs to be isolated as fast as possible to prevent more damage. For such purposes, fast protective relays are used for detection of faults.
Basically, a protective relay is a device that senses / detects faults and gives the tripping command to the circuit breaker. Thus, when a circuit breaker receives command from protective relay, it disconnects the transformer from the network.
There are various types of protective relays in transformers, and their operating principle depends on their type. viz;